This page contains a list of papers, academic and practical, on performance measurement.

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Alford, J. and Baird, J. (1997), Performance monitoring in the Australian public services: A government-wide analysis. Public Money & Management, 17, 2, pp. 49–58.

Aucoin, P. and R. Heintzman (2000). The Dialectics of Accountability for Performance in Management Reforms. Governance in the Twenty-first Century: Revitalizing the Public Service. B. G. Peters and D. J. Savoie. Montreal and Kingston, Canadian Centre for Management Development and McGill-Queens University Press.

Australian National Audit Office (2011). Development and Implementation of Key Performance Indicators to Support the Outcomes and Programs Framework.

Behn, R. D. (2003). "Why Measure Performance? Different Purposes Require Different  Measures." Public Administration Review 63(5 (September/October)).

Berman, E. M. and X. Wang (2000). "Performance measurement in U.S. counties: capacity for reform." Public Administration Review 60(5): 409-420.

Bird, S. M., D. Cox, V. T. Farewell, H. Goldstein, T. Holt and P. C. Smith (2005). "Performance indicators: good, bad, and ugly." J. R. Statist. Soc. A 168 Part 1: pp. 1–27.

Boardman, C., & Sundquist, E. (2009). Toward understanding work motivation: Worker attitudes and perception of effective public services. American Review of Public Administration, 38(5), 149-166.  Contains an instrument to assess ‘Perceived Public Service Effectiveness’

Bordeaux, Carolyn. Legislative infuence on performance-based budgeting reform. [on web]

Bouckaert, G. and J. Halligan (2008). Managing Performance: International Comparisons. Abingdon, Routledge.

Boyne, G. A. (2003). "Sources of Public Service Improvement: A Critical Review and Research Agenda." Journal of Public Administration Research & Theory 13(3): 367.

Boyne, G. A. (2003). "What is public service improvement?" Public Administration 81(2): 211-227.

Boyne, G. A., K. J. Meier, L. J. O’Toole, Jr., and R. M. Walker. 2006. ‘‘Public Management and Organizational Performance: An Agenda for Research.’’ Pp. 295–311 in G. A. Boyne, K. J. Meier, L. J. O’Toole Jr., and R. M. Walker, eds., Public Services Performance: Assessing Organizational Performance 125 Perspectives on Measurement and Management. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Boyne, G. A. and A. A. Chen (2007). "Performance Targets and Public Service Improvement." Journal of Public Administration Research & Theory 17(3): 455-477.

Brignall, S. and Modell, S. (2000), An institutional perspective on performance measurement and management in the ’new public sector’. Management Accounting Research, 11, 3, pp. 281– 306.

Buijs, J. M., Eshuis, J. & Byrne, D. (2009). Approaches to Researching Complexity in Public Management. In: Teisman, G. R., Buuren, A. v. & Gerrits, L. Managing Complex Governance Systems: Dynamics, Self-organization and Coevolution in Public Investments. London: Routledge

Burke, J. C. and H. Minassians (2003). Performance Reporting: “Real” Accountability or Accountability “Lite”: Seventh Annual Survey Albany  NY, The Nelson Rockefeller Institute of Government.

Cavalluzzo, K.S. and C.D. Ittner (2004), ‘Implementing Performance Measurement Innovations: Evidence from Government’, Accounting, Organizations and Society, Vol. 29, pp. 243– 67.

Cave, M., M. Kogan and R. Smith (1990). Output and performance measurement in government : the state of the art. London, J. Kingsley.

Charbonneau, E. and F. Bellavance (2012). "Blame Avoidance in Public Reporting." Public Performance & Management Review 35(3): 399-421.

Chun, Young H., and Hal G. Rainey. 2005. Goal ambiguity and organizational performance in U.S. federal agencies. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory 15:1–30. 

Coursen, D. (2012) "A Taxonomy of Barriers to Producing Performance Indicators on Human Service Programs." The Data Administration Newsletter, LLC

Courty, P. and G. Marschke (2003). "Dynamics of performance-measurement systems." Oxford Review of Economic Policy 19(2): 268-284.

De Bruijn, H. (2002). Managing Performance in the Public Sector. Abingdon, Routledge.

De Lancer-Julnes, P. and M. Holzer (2001). "Promoting the utilization of performance measures in public organisations: An empirical study of factors affecting adoption and implementation." Public Administration Review 61(6): 693-708.

De Lancer Julnes, P. (2006). "Performance Measurement." Evaluation 12(2): 219-235.

De Lancer Julnes, P. and M. Holzer, Eds. (2008). Performance measurement: building theory, improving practice. Armonk, New York, M.E. Sharpe.

Department of Finance and Deregulation (2010). Performance Information and Indicators. Canberra, Australian Government.

Donor Committee for Enterprise Development. Standards for Results Measurement, version V, January 2010, downloaded from

Frost, B. (2000). Measuring Performance: Using the new metrics to deploy strategy and improve performance. Dallas, Measurement International.

Guijt, I. (2010). Exploding the Myth of Incompatibility between Accountability and Learning. Capacity Development in Practice. J. Ubels, N.-A. Acquaye-Baddoo and A. Fowler., Earthscan.

Halachmi, A. (2005). Introduction – Performance measurement is only one way of managing performance. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management. 54(7). 502-516.

Halligan, J., Cláudia S. Sarrico and Mary Lee Rhodes, ‘On the road to performance governance in the public domain?’, International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 61 (3), 2012, pp.224-234.

Hatry, H., & Fisk, D. M. (1980). Measuring productivity: Issues and needs . Public Administration Review, 4(2), 139-148.

Hatry, H., and Fisk, D. (1992). Measuring productivity in the public sector. In M. Hölzer (Ed.), Public Productivity Handbook (pp. 139-160). New York: Marcel Dekker.

Hatry, H. P. (1999). Performance Measurement: Getting Results. Washington DC, The Urban Institute Press

Hatry, H. P. (1999). Performance measurement principles and techniques. In R. Kearney & E. Berman (Eds.), Public Sector Performance: Management, Motivation, and Measurement (pp. 304-328). Colorado: Westview Press.

Hatry, H.P. (2007), Performance Measurement, Urban Institute, Washington, DC.

Hawke, L. (2012). "Australian public sector performance management: success or stagnation?" International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management 61(3): 310-328.

Hawthorn, L.R.L. and McDavid, J.C. (2006), Program Evaluation and Performance Measurement: An Introduction to Practice, Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA.

Heinrich, C. (1999). Do government bureaucrats make effective use of performance management information? Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 9(3), 363-393.

Heinrich, C. J. (2012). "How Credible Is the Evidence, and Does It Matter? An Analysis of the Program Assessment Rating Tool." Public Administration Review 72(1): 123-134.

Henri, J.-F. (2006). "Organizational culture and performance measurement systems." Accounting, Organizations and Society 31(1): 77-103.

Hill, H. and Andrews, M. (2005) ‘Reforming Budget Ritual and Budget Practice: The Case of Performance Management Implementation in Virginia ‘, International Journal of Public Administration, Vol. 28, Issue 3, pp 255-272.

Hood, C. (2006), “Gaming in Targetworld: the targets approach to managing British public services”, Public Administration Review, Vol. 66 No. 4, pp. 515-21.

Hoque, Z. (2008), ‘Measuring and Reporting Public Sector Outputs/Outcomes: Exploratory Evidence from Australia’, International Journal of Public Sector Management, Vol. 21, No. 5, pp. 468–93.

Hoque, Z. and C. Adams (2008), Measuring Public Sector Performance: A Study of Government Departments in Australia, Research Monograph (CPA Australia, Melbourne).

Hoque, Z. and C. Adams (2011). "The rise and use of balanced scorecard measures in Australian government departments." Financial Accountability & Management 27(3): 308-334.

Hyndman, N & Anderson, R 1995, 'The Use of Performance Information in External Reporting: An Empirical Study of UK Executive Agencies', Financial Accountability & Management, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 1-17.

Hyndman, N & Anderson, R 1997, 'A Study of the Use of Targets in the Planning Documents of Executive Agencies', Financial Accountability & Management, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 139-64.

Hyndman, N & Anderson, R 1998, 'Performance Information, Accountability and Executive Agencies', Public Money and Management, vol. 7, pp. 23-30.

Johnsen, Å. (2005). "What Does 25 Years of Experience Tell Us About the State of Performance Measurement in Public Policy and Management?" Public Money & Management 25(1): 9-17.

Joyce, P. G. (2011). "The Obama Administration and PBB: Building on the Legacy of Federal Performance-Informed Budgeting?" Public Administration Review 71(3): 356-367.

Kamensky, J.M. and Morales, A. (Eds) (2005), Managing for Results 2005, Rowman and Littlefield, Oxford.

Kaplan, RS 2001, 'Strategic Performance Measurement and Management in Non Profit Organisations', Nonprofit Management and Leadership, vol. 11, pp. 353-70.

Kravchuk, R. S. and R. W. Schack (1996). "Designing Effective Performance-Measurement Systems under the Government Performance and Results Act of 1993." Public Administration Review 56(4): 348-358.

Kusek, J.Z. and Rist, R. (2004), Ten Steps to a Results Based Monitoring and Evaluation System, World Bank, Washington, DC.

Länsiluoto, A. and M. Järvenpää (2010). "Greening the balanced scorecard." Business Horizons 53(4): 385-395.

Lee, J. (2006), ‘Performance Reposting by Australian Government Trading Enterprises: An Empirical Study 1998-2002’, Australian Accounting Review, Vol. 6, No. 2, pp. 34.

Lindblom, C. 1959. ‘The science of muddling through’, Public Administration Review, 39, 517–26.

Lindgren, L. (2001). "The Non-profit Sector Meets the Performance-management Movement: A Programme-theory Approach." Evaluation 7(3): 285-303.

McDavid, James.C., Huse, Irene and Hawthorn, Laura. Program Evaluation and Performance Measurement: An Introduction to Practice. Second Edition. Sage Publications Inc., 2013.

McGuire, L. (2001, April). Counting performance or performance that counts? Benchmarking government services in Australia. Paper presented to the panel session on agencies and autonomous organizations at the Fifth International Research Symposium on Public Management, University of Barcelona, Spain.

McKevitt, D. and Lawton, A. (1996), ‘The manager, the citizen, the politician and performance measures’, Public Money and Management, Vol. 16, No. 3, pp. 49-54.

Mackie, B. (2008). Organsational Performance Management in a Government Context: a Literature Review. Edinburgh, Scottish Government Social Research.

Management Advisory Committee (2001), Performance Management in the Australian Public Service: A Strategic Framework, Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra.

Mark, M. M. and G. T. Henry (2004). "The Mechanisms and Outcomes of Evaluation Influence." Evaluation 10(1): 35-57.

McDavid, J. C. and I. Huse (2012). "Legislator Uses of Public Performance Reports: Findings From a Five-Year Study." American Journal of Evaluation 33(1): 7-25.

Meier, K.J., Boyne, G.A., O’Toole, L.J. Jr and Walker, R.M. (Eds), Public Service Performance: Perspectives on Measurement and Management, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2006

Meier, K.J., & Hicklin, A. (2008). Employee turnover and organizational performance: Testing a hypothesis from classical public administration. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 18, 573-590.

Melkers, J. E. and K. G. Willoughby (1998) ‘The State of the States: Performance-Based Budgeting Requirements in 47 Out of 50’, Public Administration Review 58(1): 66–73.

Melkers, J. E. and K. G. Willoughby (2001) ‘Budgeters Views of State Performance budgeting Systems: Distinctions across Branches’, Public Administration Review 61(1): 54–64.

Melkers, J.E., K.G. Willoughby, B. James, J. Fountain and W. Campbell (2002), ‘Performance Measurement at the State and Local Levels: A Summary of Survey Results’, Government Accounting Standard Board, Sponsored by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation (

Merchant, K. A. and W. A. Van der Stede (2012). Management Control Systems: Performance Measurement, Evaluation and Incentives. Harlow, Financial Times Prentice HAll.

Micheli, P. and A. D. Neely (2010). "Performance Measurement in the Public Sector in England." Public Administration Review 70(July/August): 591-600.

Miles, R and Snow, C.  Organisational Strategy, Structure and Process, McGraw Hill, Chapters 2, 3 and 4

Modell, S 2001, 'Performance Measurement and Institutional Processes: A Study of Managerial Responses to Public Sector Reform', Management Accounting Research, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 437-64.

Modell, S 2004, 'Performance Measurement Myths in The Public Sector: A Research Note', Financial Accountability & Management, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 0267-4424.

Modell, S (2005), ‘Performance Management in the Public Sector: Past Experiences, Current Practices and Future Challenges’, Australian Accounting Review, Vol. 15, No. 3, pp. 56–66.

Modell, S. (2009). "Institutional research on performance measurement and management in the public sector accounting literature: a review and assessment." Financial Accountability & Management 25(3): 277-303.

Morley, E., S. P. Bryant and H. P. Hatry (2001). Comparative Performance Merasurement. Washington D.C., The Urban Institute Press.

Moynihan, D & Ingraham, P 2001, When Does Performance Information Contribute to Performance Information Use? Putting the Factors in Place. Campbell Public Affairs Institute at Syracuse University. publications.htm.

Moynihan, D. P. (2005). "Why and how do state governments adopt and implement "managing for results" reforms?" Journal of Public Administration Research & Theory 15(2): 219.

Moynihan, D. P. (2006). "What do we talk about when we talk about performance? Dialogue theory and performance budgeting." Journal of Public Administration Research & Theory 16(2): 151.

Moynihan, D. P. (2008). The dynamics of performance management: Constructing information and reform. Washington DC, Georgetown University Press.

Moynihan, D. P. and S. K. Pandey (2005). "Testing how management matters in an era of government by performance management." Journal of Public Administration Research & Theory 15(3): 421.

Moynihan, D. P. and S. K. Pandey (2006). "Creating Desirable Characteristics: How Organizations Create a Focus on Results and Managerial Authority." Public Management Review 8(1): 119-140.

Mucciarone, M & Taylor, DW 2005, 'Factors Affecting the Disclosure Types of Performance Indicators in Annual Reports of Government Departments', Australian Finance and Accounting Association And New Zealand (AFAANZ) Conference July 3-5 2005, Melbourne, Australia.

Mucciarone, M. A. (2008). Accountability and Performance Measurement in Australian and Malaysian Government Departments. Ph. D. thesis, Curtin University of Technology.

Neely, A. D., M. Gregory and K. Platts (2005). "Performance measurement and system design, a literature review and research agenda." International Journal of Operations and Production Management 19(2): 205-228.

Norman, R. (2002), Managing through measurement or meaning? Lessons from experience with New Zealand’s public sector performance management systems. International Review of Administrative Sciences, 68, 4, pp. 619–628.

Office of the Auditor-General of Canada (2006). Audit Criteria for the 2006 Assessment of the Fairness and Reliability of Performance Information.

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) (2007), Performance Budgeting in OECD Countries, Paris: OECD.

Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Measuring Government Activity, 2009

Osborne, S. T., Bovaird, T., Martin, S., Tricker, M. and Waterston, P. (1995). Performance  management and accountability in complex public programmes. Financial Accountability & Management. 11 (1), 19

Perrin, B 1998, 'Effective Use and Misuse of Performance Measurement', American Journal of Evaluation, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 367-9.

Perrin, B 1999, 'Performance Measurement: Does the Reality Match the Rhetoric? A Rejoinder to Bernstein and Winston', American Journal of Evaluation, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 101-11.

Pollitt, C., S. Harrison, R. Bal, G. Dowswell and S. Jerak (undated ca 2008) "Conceptualising the development of performance measurement systems: Paper submitted to the EGPA Study Group on Performance and Quality."

Posner, P. L. (2002). Accountability Challenges of Third-Party Government. The Tools of Government: A Guide to the New Governance. L. M. Salamon, Oxford University Press: 525.

Radin, B. A. (2006). Challenging the Performance Movement: Accountability, Complexity and Democratic values. Washington D.C., Georgetown University Press.

Salloum, M., M. Wiktorsson, M. Bengtsson and C. Johansson (2010). "Aligning Dynamic Performance Measures." Proceedings of the European Conference on Management, Leadership & Governance: 339-349.

Schacter, M. (2002) "Not a “Tool Kit”: Practitioner’s Guide to Measuring the Performance of Public Programs."

Sharma, B. and J. Wanna (2005), ‘Performance Measures, Measurement and Reporting in Government Organizations’, International Journal of Business Performance Management, Vol. 7, No. 3, pp. 320–33.

Spitzer, D. R. (2007). Transforming performance measurement: rethinking the way we measure and drive organizational success. New York, Amacom.

Tanner, L. (2008). Operation Sunlight: Enhancing Budget Transparency, Australian Government.

Thomas, Paul G. (2006) Performance Measurement, Reporting, Obstacles and Accountability: Recent Trends and Future Directions.ANU E Press, Canberra.

Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat (2003) Management Accountability Framework, Ottawa, Treasury Board of Canada.

Umashev, C. and R. Willett (2008). "Challenges to Implementing Strategic Performance Measurement Systems in Multi-Objective Organizations: The Case of a Large Local Government Authority." Abacus 44(4): 377-398.

Van Der Knaap, P. (2006). "Responsive Evaluation and Performance Management: Overcoming the Downsides of Policy Objectives and Performance Indicators." Evaluation 12(3): 278-293.

Van Dooren, W. and Van de Walle, S. (Eds) (2008), Performance Information in the Public Sector: How It Is Used, Palgrave, Houndmills.

Van Dooren, W., G. Bouckaert and J. Halligan (2010). Performance management in the public sector. Abingdon, Routledge.

Van Dooren, W., C. De Caluwe and Z. Lontu (2012). "How to Measure Public Administration Performance: A Conceptual Model with Applications for Budgeting, Human Resources Management, and Open Government." Public Performance & Management Review 35(3): 498-508.

Van Thiel, S. and F. L. Leeuw (2002). "The Performance Paradox in the Public Sector." Public Performance & Management Review 25(3): 267-281.

Verbeeten, F. H. (2008). Performance management practices in public sector organizations.  Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal. 21 (3), 427-454.

Westin, S. S. (1998). Balancing Flexibility and Accountability: Grant Program Design in Education and Other Areas, United States General Accounting Office.

Westin, S. S. (1998). Grant Programs: Design Features Shape Flexibility, Accountability and Performance Information, United States General Accounting Office.

Wholey, J. S. and H. P. Hatry (1982). The case for performance monitoring. Public Administration Review 52(6): 604-610.

Wilkins, P 2003, The Use and Usefulness of Public Sector Performance Information: Have We Lost the Plot, Vision 2020 The IPAA National Conference, pp. 1-9.

Wilkins, P & Mayne, J 2002, Providing Assurance on Performance Reports: Two Jurisdictions Compared. Retrieved 14 July 2012, from reports/providingassurance.html.

Wilson, J. Q. (1989). Bureaucracy: What Government Agencies Do and Why they Do It. New York, Basic Books.

World Bank (2007) How to Build M&E Systems to Support Better Government, Washington D.C., The World Bank.

Wouters, M. and C. Wilderom (2008). "Developing performance-measurement systems as enabling formalization: A longitudinal field study of a logistics department." Accounting, Organizations and Society 33(4–5): 488-516.

Yang, K. and M. Holzer (2006). "THe Performance-Trust Link: Implications for Performance Measurement." Public Management Review 66(1): 114-126.